Thomas Kuhn. Distinguished between ‘normal science’ and ‘paradigm shift science.’ Normal science occurs within a framework, Comptom shifted from normal science to a paradigm shift to explain the data.
Demarcation: science is obsessed with borders, what is and isn’t science. What is ‘authentic’ science? Why isn’t a woodworker who investigates good woods and reporting the results is not science. Is science a gradient, a spectrum? Why do things get replicated or not? Controversial, surprising results tend to replicated, but nothing else.
The emergence of modern citation practices is the most visible, but not necessarily the most fundamental, product of the development of implicit and explicit intertextuality in nineteenth century scientific communication. What other forms of intertextuality? By that time research physics meant journal physics exclusively, with the article and shorter note (or letter) as the standard genres, In […]
Whiggish: master narrative, that past events determine present. There are buddhist, bliblical, etc. We need to understand how things are understood at the time, not with present biases. We are trained in teleological terms, we are making progress. episteme (perfect lab conditions): scientific knowledge doxa (it enters in the real world): communal knowledge, common sense […]
Positivism, modes of rhetoric, enthymemes, hedging in scientific articles, how awesome Bazerman is, graphs. mathematics as a language. Science writing as a narrative. Footnotes. Salient silences, meaningful things that aren’t said. Science depends on eyewitness, anecdotes. Is the plural of anecdote “data.” Sometimes it is. With enough, it is somewhat accountable. How do we know […]
The infliction of death by state for punishment of a crime. Crime is usually murder, treason, or certain acts of terrorism (though no one has been convicted and given the death penalty for terrorism). Is punishment prima facie wrong in general? Punishment is doing something bad to someone, so there has to be a good […]
Strossen: Hate speech should not be censored. She has fought against universities regulating free speech. Censorship is contrary to fundamental principles of American legal system. Censorship undermines equality. Censorships tends to victimize minorities that it aims to protect. She thinks any of these particular arguments is sufficient against free will. Two legal principles that censorship […]
The harm principle is one of the greatest tools for preventing a person from doing something and infringe upon their liberties. Lawrence’s argument is an embodiment of the Harm principle in order to argue that hate speech shouldn’t be protected on campus. Lawrence starts the article with a newsreel of racist incidents that happen on […]
Americans value the first amendment enormously, we consider it sacred. But it has to be limited in cases where it harms people, just as any liberty can be limited when it harms others. Supreme Court has also limited ‘fighting words,’ negative words. Mill introduced Harm principle: the only legitimate reason to interfere with liberty is […]
Define terms for non-philosophy people. Describe argument and issue in intro. Just because the argument is invalid or a premise is false doesn’t mean the conclusion is false. An objection is our own set of premises to show that one of the premises are false or that the structure is invalid. The first objection should […]
Rachel claims that we ought to prefer active euthanasia to passive euthanasia in some cases. Hardwig makes a much stronger claim that we actually have a duty to die, that we required to kill ourselves in some situations. It’s like Captain Oates, who decided to die to help his comrades finish the expedition. This is […]
Being an author of an act vs. just spectating an act causes different psychological effects to the person doing the murderer. Thus, killing is worse than watching someone die without helping. People think there is a firm divide between killing and letting die, but there is not much distinction besides the point above. There is […]